Inside of a Dog: What Dogs See, Smell, and Know

Inside of a Dog: What Dogs See, Smell, and Know ✅ Beading Inside of a Dog: What Dogs See, Smell, and Know essay ͧ Kindle Ebook Author Alexandra Horowitz ᾭ Inside of a Dog Prelude First you see the head Over the crest of the hill appears a muzzle, drooling It is as yet not visibly attached to anything A limb jangles into view, followed in unhasty succession by a second, third, and fourth, bearing a hundred and forty pounds of body between them The wolfhound, three feet at his shoulder and five feet to his tail, spies the long haired Chihuahua, half a dog high, hidden in the grasses between her owners feet The Chihuahua is six pounds, each of them trembling With one languorous leap, his ears perked high, the wolfhound arrives in front of the Chihuahua The Chihuahua looks demurely away the wolfhound bends down to Chihuahua level and nips her side The Chihuahua looks back at the hound, who raises his rear end up in the air, tail held high, in preparation to attack Instead of fleeing from this apparent danger, the Chihuahua matches his pose and leaps onto the wolfhounds face, embracing his nose with her tiny paws They begin to play For five minutes these dogs tumble, grab, bite, and lunge at each other The wolfhound throws himself onto his side and the little dog responds with attacks to his face, belly, and paws A swipe by the hound sends the Chihuahua scurrying backward, and she timidly sidesteps out of his reach The hound barks, jumps up, and arrives back on his feet with a thud At this, the Chihuahua races toward one of those feet and bites it, hard They are in mid embracethe hound with his mouth surrounding the body of the Chihuahua, the Chihuahua kicking back at the hounds facewhen an owner snaps a leash on the hounds collar and pulls him upright and away The Chihuahua rights herself, looks after them, barks once, and trots back to her owner These dogs are so incommensurable with each other that they may as well be different species The ease of play between them always puzzled me The wolfhound bit, mouthed, and charged at the Chihuahua yet the little dog responded not with fright but in kind What explains their ability to play together Why doesnt the hound see the Chihuahua as prey Why doesnt the Chihuahua see the wolfhound as predator The answer turns out to have nothing to do with the Chihuahuas delusion of canine grandeur or the hounds lack of predatory drive Neither is it simply hardwired instinct taking over There are two ways to learn how play worksand what playing dogs are thinking, perceiving, and saying be born as a dog, or spend a lot of time carefully observing dogs The former was unavailable to me Come along as I describe what Ive learned by watching I am a dog person My home has always had a dog in it My affinity for dogs began with our family dog, Aster, with his blue eyes, lopped tail, and nighttime neighborhood ramblings that often left me up late, wearing pajamas and worry, waiting for his midnight return I long mourned the death of Heidi, a springer spaniel who ran with excitementmy childhood imagination had her tongue trailing out of the side of her mouth and her long ears blown back with the happy vigor of her runright under a cars tires on the state highway near our home As a college student, I gazed with admiration and affection at an adopted chow mix Beckett as she stoically watched me leave for the day And now at my feet lies the warm, curly, panting form of PumpernickelPumpa mutt who has lived with me for all of her sixteen years and through all of my adulthood I have begun every one of my days in five states, five years of graduate school, and four jobs with her tail thumping greeting when she hears me stir in the morning As anyone who considers himself a dog person will recognize, I cannot imagine my life without this dog I am a dog person, a lover of dogs I am also a scientist I study animal behavior Professionally, I am wary of anthropomorphizing animals, attributing to them the feelings, thoughts, and desires that we use to describe ourselves In learning how to study the behavior of animals, I was taught and adhered to the scientists code for describing actions be objective do not explain a behavior by appeal to a mental process when explanation by simpler processes will do a phenomenon that is not publicly observable and confirmable is not the stuff of science These days, as a professor of animal behavior, comparative cognition, and psychology, I teach from masterful texts that deal in quantifiable fact They describe everything from hormonal and genetic explanations for the social behavior of animals, to conditioned responses, fixed action patterns, and optimal foraging rates, in the same steady, objective tone And yet Most of the questions my students have about animals remain quietly unanswered in these texts At conferences where I have presented my research, other academics inevitably direct the postlecture conversations to their own experiences with their pets And I still have the same questions Id always had about my own dogand no sudden rush of answers Science, as practiced and reified in texts, rarely addresses our experiences of living with and attempting to understand the minds of our animals In my first years of graduate school, when I began studying the science of the mind, with a special interest in the minds of non human animals, it never occurred to me to study dogs Dogs seemed so familiar, so understood There is nothing to be learned from dogs, colleagues claimed dogs are simple, happy creatures whom we need to train and feed and love, and that is all there is to them There is no data in dogs That was the conventional wisdom among scientists My dissertation advisor studied, respectably, baboons primates are the animals of choice in the field of animal cognition The assumption is that the likeliest place to find skills and cognition approaching our own is in our primate brethren That was, and remains, the prevailing view of behavioral scientists Worse still, dog owners seemed to have already covered the territory of theorizing about the dog mind, and their theories were generated from anecdotes and misapplied anthropomorphisms The very notion of the mind of a dog was tainted And yet I spent many recreational hours during my years of graduate school in California in the local dog parks and beaches with Pumpernickel At the time I was in training as an ethologist, a scientist of animal behavior I joined two research groups observing highly social creatures the white rhinoceros at the Wild Animal Park in Escondido, and the bonobos pygmy chimpanzees at the Park and the San Diego Zoo I learned the science of careful observations, data gathering, and statistical analysis Over time, this way of looking began seeping into those recreational hours at the dog parks Suddenly the dogs, with their fluent travel between their own social world and that of people, became entirely unfamiliar I stopped seeing their behavior as simple and understood Where I once saw and smiled at play between Pumpernickel and the local bull terrier, I now saw a complex dance requiring mutual cooperation, split second communications, and assessment of each others abilities and desires The slightest turn of a head or the point of a nose now seemed directed, meaningful I saw dogs whose owners did not understand a single thing their dogs were doing I saw dogs too clever for their playmates I saw people misreading canine requests as confusion and delight as aggression I began bringing a video camera with us and taping our outings at the parks At home I watched the tapes of dogs playing with dogs, of people ball and Frisbee tossing to their dogstapes of chasing, fighting, petting, running, barking With new sensitivity to the possible richness of social interactions in an entirely non linguistic world, all of these once ordinary activities now seemed to me to be an untapped font of information When I began watching the videos in extremely slow motion playback, I saw behaviors I had never seen in years of living with dogs Examined closely, simple play frolicking between two dogs became a dizzying series of synchronous behaviors, active role swapping, variations on communicative displays, flexible adaptation to others attention, and rapid movement between highly diverse play acts What I was seeing were snapshots of the minds of the dogs, visible in the ways they communicated with each other and tried to communicate with the people around themand, too, in the way they interpreted other dogs and peoples actions I never saw Pumpernickelor any dogthe same way again Far from being a killjoy on the delights of interacting with her, though, the spectacles of science gave me a rich new way to look at what she was doing a new way to understand life as a dog Since those first hours of viewing, I have studied dogs at play playing with other dogs and playing with people At the time I was unwittingly part of a sea change taking place in sciences attitude toward studying dogs The transformation is not yet complete, but the landscape of dog research is already remarkably different than it was twenty years ago Where once there was an inappreciable number of studies of dog cognition and behavior, there are now conferences on the dog, research groups devoted to studying the dog, experimental and ethological studies on the dog in the United States and abroad, and dog research results sprinkled through scientific journals The scientists doing this work have seen what I have seen the dog is a perfect entry into the study of non human animals Dogs have lived with human beings for thousands, maybe hundreds of thousands of years Through the artificial selection of domestication, they have evolved to be sensitive to just those things that importantly make up our cognition, including, critically, attention to others In this book I introduce you to the science of the dog Scientists working in laboratories and in the field, studying working dogs and companion dogs, have gathered an impressive amount of information on the biology of dogstheir sensory abilities, their behaviorand on the psychology of dogstheir cognition Drawing from the accumulated results of hundreds of research programs, we can begin to create a picture of the dog from the insideof the skill of his nose, what he hears, how his eyes turn to us, and the brain behind it all The dog cognition work reviewed includes my own but extends far beyond it to summarize all the results from recent research For some topics on which there is no reliable information yet on dogs, I incorporate studies on other animals that might help us understand a dogs life, too For those whose appetite for the original research articles is whetted by the accounts herein, full citations appear at the books end We do no disservice to dogs by stepping away from the leash and considering them scientifically Their abilities and point of view merit special attention And the result is magnificent far from being distanced by science, we are brought closer to and can marvel at the true nature of the dog Used rigorously but creatively, the process and results of science can shed new light on discussions that people have daily about what their dog knows, understands, or believes Through my personal journey, learning to look systemically and scientifically at my own dogs behavior, I came to have a better understanding of, appreciation of, and relationship with her Ive gotten inside of the dog, and have glimpsed the dogs point of view You can do the same If you have a dog in the room with you, what you see in that great, furry pile of dogness is about to change A PREFATORY NOTE ON THE DOG, TRAINING, AND OWNERS Calling a dog the dog It is the nature of scientific study of non human animals that a few individual animals who have been thoroughly poked, observed, trained, or dissected come to represent their entire species Yet with humans we never let one persons behavior stand for all of our behavior If one man fails to solve a Rubiks cube in an hour, we do not extrapolate from that that all men will so fail unless that man had bested every other man alive Here our sense of individuality is stronger than our sense of shared biology When it comes to describing our potential physical and cognitive capacities, we are individuals first, and members of the human race second By contrast, with animals the order is reversed Science considers animals as representatives of their species first, and as individuals second We are accustomed to seeing a single animal or two kept in a zoo as representative of their species to zoo management, they are even unwitting ambassadors of the species Our view of the uniformity of species members is well exemplified in our comparison of their intelligence To test the hypothesis, long popular, that having a bigger brain indicates greater intelligence, the brain volumes of chimpanzees, monkeys, and rats were compared with human brains Sure enough, the chimps brain is smaller than ours, the monkeys smaller than the chimps, the rats a mere cerebellum sized node of the primates brains That much of the story is fairly well known What is surprising is that the brains used, for comparative purposes, were the brains of just two or three chimpanzees and monkeys These couple of animals unlucky enough to lose their heads for science were henceforth considered perfectly representative monkeys and chimps But we had no idea if they happened to be particularly big brained monkeys, or abnormally small brained chimps.1 Similarly, if a single animal or small group of animals fails in a psychological experiment, the species is tainted with the brush of failure Although grouping animals by biological similarity is clearly useful shorthand, there is a strange result we tend to speak of the species as though all members of the species were identical We never make this slip with humans If a dog, given the choice between a pile of twenty biscuits and a pile of ten biscuits, chooses the latter, the conclusion is often stated with the definite article the dog cannot distinguish between large and small pilesnot a dog cannot so distinguish So when I talk about the dog, I am talking implicitly about those dogs studied to date The results of many well performed experiments may eventually allow us to reasonably generalize to all dogs, period But even then, the variations among individual dogs will be great your dog may be an unusually good smeller, may never look you in the eye, may love his dog bed and hate to be touched Not every behavior a dog does should be interpreted as telling, taken as something intrinsic or fantastic sometimes they just are, just as we are That said, what I offer herein is the known capacity of the dog your results may be different Training dogs This is not a dog training book Still, its contents might lead you to be able to train your dog, inadvertently This will catch us up to dogs, who have already, without a tome on people, learned how to train us without our realizing it The dog training literature and the dog cognition and behavior literatures do not overlap greatly Dog trainers do use a few basic tenets from psychology and ethologysometimes to great effect, sometimes to disastrous end Most training operates on the principle of associative learning Associations between events are easily learned by all animals, including humans Associative learning is what is behind operant conditioning paradigms, which provide a reward a treat, attention, a toy, a pat after the occurrence of a desired behavior a dog sitting down Through repeated application, one can shape a new, desired behavior in a dogbe it lying down and rolling over, or, for the ambitious, calmly Jet Skiing behind a motorboat But often the tenets of training clash with the scientific study of the dog For instance, many trainers use the analogy of dog as tame wolf as informative in how we should see and treat dogs An analogy can only be as good as its source In this case, as we will see, scientists know a limited amount about natural wolf behaviorand what we know often contradicts the conventional wisdom used to bolster those analogies In addition, training methods are not scientifically tested, despite some trainers assertions to the contrary That is, no training program has been evaluated by comparing the performance of an experimental group that gets training and a control group whose life is identical except for the absence of the training program People who come to trainers often share two unusual features their dogs are less obedient than the average dog, and the owners are motivated to change them than the average owner It is very likely, given this combination of conditions and a few months, that the dog will behave differently after training, almost regardless of what the training is Training successes are exciting, but they do not prove that the training method is what led to the success The success could be indicative of good training But it could also be a happy accident It could also be the result of attention being paid to the dog over the course of the program It could be the result of the dogs maturing over the course of the program It could be the result of that bullying dog down the street moving away In other words, the success could be the result of dozens of other co occurring changes in the dogs life We cannot distinguish these possibilities without rigorous scientific testing Most critically, training is usually tailored to the ownerto change the dog to fit the owners conception of the role of the dog, and of what he wants the dog to do This goal is quite different than our aim looking to see what the dog actually does, and what he wants from and understands of you The dog and his owner It is increasingly in vogue to speak not of pet ownership but pet guardianship, or pet companions Clever writers talk of dogs humans, turning the ownership arrow back on ourselves In this book I call dogs families owners simply because this term describes the legal relationship we have with dogs peculiarly, they are still considered property and property of little compensatory value, besides breeding value, a lesson I hope no reader ever has to learn personally I will celebrate the day when dogs are not property which we own Until then, I use the word owner apolitically, for convenience and with no other motive This motive guides me in my pronoun use, too unless discussing a female dog, I usually call the dog him, as this is our gender neutral term The reputedly neutral it is not an option, for anyone who has known a dog 1Of course, researchers soon found brains bigger than ours the dolphins brain is larger, as are the brains of physically larger creatures such as whales and elephants The big brain myth has long been overturned Those who are still interested in mapping brain to smarts now look at other, sophisticated measures the amount of convolution of the brain the encephalization quotient, a ratio that includes both brain and body size in the calculation the quantity of neocortex or the gross number of neurons and synapses between neurons.The bestselling book that asks what dogs know and how they think The answers will surprise and delight you as Alexandra Horowitz, a cognitive scientist, explains how dogs perceive their daily worlds, each other, and that other quirky animal, the human.Horowitz introduces the reader to dogs perceptual and cognitive abilities and then draws a picture of what it might be like to be a dog Whats it like to be able to smell not just every bit of open food in the house but also to smell sadness in humans, or even the passage of time How does a tiny dog manage to play successfully with a Great Dane What is it like to hear the bodily vibrations of insects or the hum of a fluorescent light Why must a person on a bicycle be chased Whats it like to use your mouth as a hand In short, what is it like for a dog to experience life from two feet off the ground, amidst the smells of the sidewalk, gazing at our ankles or knees Inside of a Dog explains these things and much The answers can be surprisingonce we set aside our natural inclination to anthropomorphize dogs Inside of a Dog also contains up to the minute researchon dogs detection of disease, the secrets of their tails, and their skill at reading our attentionthat Horowitz puts into useful context Although not a formal training guide, Inside of a Dog has practical application for dog lovers interested in understanding why their dogs do what they do With a light touch and the weight of science behind her, Alexandra Horowitz examines the animal we think we know best but may actually understand the least This book is as close as you can get to knowing about dogs without being a dog yourself. inside Englisch Deutsch PONS The inside of the Duomo raffinata holds an exhibition sculptures, first all wonderful baptismal font on entrance wall built by Benedetto da Maiano, and right place a monument Cino to be dedicated Pistoia LEO bersetzung im Wrterbuch Lernen Sie die fr in LEOs Wrterbuch Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Flle und Zeiten Aussprache relevante Diskussionen Kostenloser Vokabeltrainer Inside Real news, curated real humans Inside team does consistently fantastic job delivering news at time, immediately relatable way Daniel James Scott Definition Merriam Webster Kids Entry inner side I cleaned my car out or into interior Go Computerspiel Wikipedia ist ein sogenannter Puzzle Platformer, d h das Spielgeschehen wird einerseits durch przises Laufen Springen mit Spielfigur geprgt, andererseits mssen zum Vorankommen Rtsel Form von notwendigen Umgebungsmanipulationen gelst werden, um weitere Spielareale freizuschalten Home Getrnke Informationen aus dem Getrnkemarkt Markt Magazin Informationen, Hintergrnde Personalien Getrnkeindustrie, Lebensmittel Fachgrohandel, brandaktuell, unabhngig do Mario meint Zusammengefasst gesagt, macht INSIDE quasi alles etwas besser Vorgnger Die Optik wurde deutlich aufgebohrt, statt Schockmomenten gibt es eher lnger anhaltende Anspannung Geschichte lsst noch mal mehr Freiheiten eigenen Gedanken What s Furby Connect YouTube We CUT IN HALF see what These are very advanced smart toys that may creep some people Buy your own Fu Does Your PC Look Like Take motherboard is mounted computer case securely attached via small screws through pre drilled holes All components connect one another eine Experience einer statischen Gesellschaft, seit knapp fnfhundert Jahren unter Erde lebt Unser Szenario spielt alternativen Zeitlinie, Oberflche Massenvernichtungswaffen unbewohnbar Inside of a Dog: What Dogs See, Smell, and Know

  • Format Kindle
  • 384 pages
  • 1416583432
  • Alexandra Horowitz
  • Anglais
  • 11 March 2016