The Future of the Mind: The Scientific Quest to Understand, Enhance, and Empower the Mind

The Future of the Mind: The Scientific Quest to Understand, Enhance, and Empower the Mind ौ → The Future of the Mind: The Scientific Quest to Understand, Enhance, and Empower the Mind free download → The Future of the Mind: The Scientific Quest to Understand, Enhance, and Empower the Mind ७ ePUB By Michio Kaku গ Houdini believed that telepathy was impossible But science is provingHoudini wrong.Telepathy is now the subject of intense research at universities aroundthe world, where scientists have already been able to use advanced sensors toread individual words, images, and thoughts in a persons brain This couldalter the way we communicate with stroke and accident victims who arelocked in their bodies, unable to articulate their thoughts except throughblinks But thats just the start Telepathy might also radically change the waywe interact with computers and the outside world.Indeed, in a recent Next 5 in 5 Forecast, which predicts five revolutionarydevelopments in the next five years, IBM scientists claimed that we willbe able to mentally communicate with computers, perhaps replacing themouse and voice commands This means using the power of the mind to callpeople on the phone, pay credit card bills, drive cars, make appointments,create beautiful symphonies and works of art, etc The possibilities are endless,and it seems that everyone from computer giants, educators, videogame companies, and music studios to the Pentagon is converging on thistechnology.True telepathy, found in science fiction and fantasy novels, is not possiblewithout outside assistance As we know, the brain is electrical In general,anytime an electron is accelerated, it gives off electromagnetic radiation Thesame holds true for electrons oscillating inside the brain, which broadcastsradio waves But these signals are too faint to be detected by others, andeven if we could perceive these radio waves, it would be difficult to makesense of them Evolution has not given us the ability to decipher this collectionof random radio signals, but computers can Scientists have been ableto get crude approximations of a persons thoughts using EEG scans Subjectswould put on a helmet with EEG sensors and concentrate on certainpictures say, the image of a car The EEG signals were then recorded foreach image and eventually a rudimentary dictionary of thought was created,with a one to one correspondence between a persons thoughts and the EEGimage Then, when a person was shown a picture of another car, the computerwould recognize the EEG pattern as being from a car.The advantage of EEG sensors is that they are noninvasive and quick.You simply put a helmet containing many electrodes onto the surface of thebrain and the EEG can rapidly identify signals that change every millisecond.But the problem with EEG sensors, as we have seen, is that electromagneticwaves deteriorate as they pass through the skull, and it is difficult to locatetheir precise source This method can tell if you are thinking of a car or ahouse, but it cannot re create an image of the car That is where Dr Jack Gallantswork comes in.VIDEOS OF THE MINDThe epicenter for much of this research is the University of California atBerkeley, where I received my own Ph.D in theoretical physics years ago Ihad the pleasure of touring the laboratory of Dr Gallant, whose group hasaccomplished a feat once considered to be impossible videotaping peoplesthoughts This is a major leap forward reconstructing internal imagery Weare opening a window into the movies in our mind, says Gallant.When I visited his laboratory, the first thing I noticed was the team ofyoung, eager postdoctoral and graduate students huddled in front of theircomputer screens, looking intently at video images that were reconstructedfrom someones brain scan Talking to Gallants team, you feel as though youare witnessing scientific history in the making.Gallant explained to me that first the subject lies flat on a stretcher, whichis slowly inserted headfirst into a huge, state of the art MRI machine, costingupward of 3 million The subject is then shown several movie clips suchas movie trailers readily available on YouTube To accumulate enough data,the subject has to sit motionless for hours watching these clips, a truly arduoustask I asked one of the postdocs, Dr Shinji Nishimoto, how they foundvolunteers who were willing to lie still for hours on end with only fragmentsof video footage to occupy the time He said the people in the room, the gradstudents and postdocs, volunteered to be guinea pigs for their own research.As the subject watches the movies, the MRI machine creates a 3 D imageof the blood flow within the brain The MRI image looks like a vast collectionof thirty thousand dots, or voxels Each voxel represents a pinpoint of neural energy, and the color of the dot corresponds to the intensity of the signal and blood flow Red dots represent points of large neural activity, while blue dots represent points of less activity The final image looks very much like thousands of Christmas lights in the shape of the brain Immediately you can see that the brain is concentrating most of its mental energy in the visual cortex, which is located at the back of the brain, while watching these videos Gallants MRI machine is so powerful it can identify two to three hundred distinct regions of the brain and, on average, can take snapshots that have one hundred dots per region of the brain One goal for future generations of MRI technology is to provide an even sharper resolution by increasing the number of dots per region of the brain At first, this 3 D collection of colored dots looks like gibberish But afteryears of research, Dr Gallant and his colleagues have developed a mathematicalformula that begins to find relationships between certain features of a picture edges, textures, intensity, etc and the MRI voxels For example, if you look at a boundary, youll notice its a region separating lighter and darker areas, and hence the edge generates a certain pattern of voxels By having subject after subject view such a large library of movie clips, this mathematical formula is refined, allowing the computer to analyze how all sorts of images are converted into MRI voxels Eventually the scientists were able to ascertain a direct correlation between certain MRI patterns of voxelsand features within each picture.At this point, the subject is then shown another movie trailer The computeranalyzes the voxels generated during this viewing and re creates a rough approximation of the original image The computer selects images from one hundred movie clips that most closely resemble the one that the subject just saw and then merges images to create a close approximation In this way, the computer is able to create a fuzzy video of the visual imagery going through your mind Dr Gallants mathematical formula is so versatile that it can take a collection of MRI voxels and convert it into a picture, or it can do the reverse, taking a picture and then converting it to MRI voxels.I had a chance to view the video created by Dr Gallants group, and it wasvery impressive Watching it was like viewing a movie with faces, animals,street scenes, and buildings through dark glasses Although you could notsee the details within each face or animal, you could clearly identify the kindof object you were seeing.Not only can this program decode what you are looking at, it can alsodecode imaginary images circulating in your head Lets say you are asked tothink of the Mona Lisa We know from MRI scans that even though yourenot viewing the painting with your eyes, the visual cortex of your brain willlight up Dr Gallants program then scans your brain while you are thinkingof the Mona Lisa and flips through its data files of pictures, trying to find theclosest match In one experiment I saw, the computer selected a picture ofthe actress Salma Hayek as the closest approximation to the Mona Lisa Ofcourse, the average person can easily recognize hundreds of faces, but thefact that the computer analyzed an image within a persons brain and thenpicked out this picture from millions of random pictures at its disposal isstill impressive.The goal of this whole process is to create an accurate dictionary thatallows you to rapidly match an object in the real world with the MRI patternin your brain In general, a detailed match is very difficult and will take years,but some categories are actually easy to read just by flipping through somephotographs Dr Stanislas Dehaene of the Collge de France in Paris wasexamining MRI scans of the parietal lobe, where numbers are recognized,when one of his postdocs casually mentioned that just by quickly scanningthe MRI pattern, he could tell what number the subject was looking at Infact, certain numbers created distinctive patterns on the MRI scan He notes,If you take 200 voxels in this area, and look at which of them are activeand which are inactive, you can construct a machine learning device thatdecodes which number is being held in memory.This leaves open the question of when we might be able to have picture qualityvideos of our thoughts Unfortunately, information is lost when aperson is visualizing an image Brain scans corroborate this When you comparethe MRI scan of the brain as it is looking at a flower to an MRI scanas the brain is thinking about a flower, you immediately see that the secondimage has far fewer dots than the first So although this technology willvastly improve in the coming years, it will never be perfect I once read ashort story in which a man meets a genie who offers to create anything thatthe person can imagine The man immediately asks for a luxury car, a jetplane, and a million dollars At first, the man is ecstatic But when he looks atthese items in detail, he sees that the car and the plane have no engines, andthe image on the cash is all blurred Everything is useless This is because ourmemories are only approximations of the real thing But given the rapidity with which scientists are beginning to decode theMRI patterns in the brain, will we soon be able to actually read words andthoughts circulating in the mind READING THE MINDIn fact, in a building next to Gallants laboratory, Dr Brian Pasley and hiscolleagues are literally reading thoughts at least in principle One of thepostdocs there, Dr Sara Szczepanski, explained to me how they are able toidentify words inside the mind.The scientists used what is called ECOG electrocorticogram technology,which is a vast improvement over the jumble of signals that EEG scansproduce ECOG scans are unprecedented in accuracy and resolution, sincesignals are directly recorded from the brain and do not pass through theskull The flipside is that one has to remove a portion of the skull to place amesh, containing sixty four electrodes in an eight by eight grid, directly ontop of the exposed brain.Luckily they were able to get permission to conduct experiments withECOG scans on epileptic patients, who were suffering from debilitating seizures.The ECOG mesh was placed on the patients brains while open brainsurgery was being performed by doctors at the nearby University of Californiaat San Francisco.As the patients hear various words, signals from their brains pass throughthe electrodes and are then recorded Eventually a dictionary is formed,matching the word with the signals emanating from the electrodes in thebrain Later, when a word is uttered, one can see the same electrical pattern This correspondence also means that if one is thinking of a certain word, thecomputer can pick up the characteristic signals and identify it.With this technology, it might be possible to have a conversation thattakes place entirely telepathically Also, stroke victims who are totally paralyzedmay be able to talk through a voice synthesizer that recognizes thebrain patterns of individual words.Not surprisingly, BMI brain machine interface has become a hot field,with groups around the country making significant breakthroughs Similarresults were obtained by scientists at the University of Utah in 2011 Theyplaced grids, each containing sixteen electrodes, over the facial motor cortex which controls movements of the mouth, lips, tongue, and face andWernickes area, which processes information about language The person was then asked to say ten common words, such as yes and no, hot and cold, hungry and thirsty, hello and good bye, and and less Using a computer to record the brain signals when these words were uttered, the scientists were able to create a rough one to one correspondence between spoken words and computer signals from the brain.Later, when the patient voiced certain words, they were able to correctlyidentify each one with an accuracy ranging from 76 percent to 90 percent.The next step is to use grids with 121 electrodes to get better resolution.In the future, this procedure may prove useful for individuals sufferingfrom strokes or paralyzing illnesses such as Lou Gehrigs disease, who wouldbe able to speak using the brain to computer technique.TYPING WITH THE MINDAt the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, Dr Jerry Shih has hooked up epilepticpatients via ECOG sensors so they can learn how to type with the mind.The calibration of this device is simple The patient is first shown a seriesof letters and is told to focus mentally on each symbol A computer recordsthe signals emanating from the brain as it scans each letter As with the otherexperiments, once this one to one dictionary is created, it is then a simplematter for the person to merely think of the letter and for the letter to betyped on a screen, using only the power of the mind.Dr Shih, the leader of this project, says that the accuracy of his machineis nearly 100 percent Dr Shih believes that he can next create a machine torecord images, not just words, that patients conceive in their minds Thiscould have applications for artists and architects, but the big drawback ofECOG technology, as we have mentioned, is that it requires opening uppatients brains.Meanwhile, EEG typewriters, because they are noninvasive, are enteringthe marketplace They are not as accurate or precise as ECOG typewriters,but they have the advantage that they can be sold over the counter GugerTechnologies, based in Austria, recently demonstrated an EEG typewriter ata trade show According to their officials, it takes only ten minutes or so forpeople to learn how to use this machine, and they can then type at the rateof five to ten words per minute.Praise for The Future of the Mind, 1 New York Times BestsellerCompellingKaku thinks with great breadth, and the vistas he presents us are worth the trip The New York Times Book Review Intriguing.extraordinary findingsA fascinating sprint through everything from telepathy research to the 147,456 processors of the Blue Gene computer, which has been used to simulate 4.5% of the brains synapses and neurons NatureFizzes with his characteristic effervescence.Fascinating. For all his talk of surrogates and intelligent robots, no manufactured being could have a fraction of his charisma The Independent A mind bending study of the possibilities of the brain.a clear and readable guide to what is going on at a time of astonishingly rapid change The Telegraph In this expansive, illuminating journey through the mind, theoretical physicist Kaku Physics of the Future explores fantastical realms of science fiction that may soon become our reality His futurist framework merges physics with neuroscience applied to demonstrations that show proof of principle in accomplishing what was previously fictional that minds can be read, memories can be digitally stored, and intelligences can be improved to great extents The discussion, while heavily scientific, is engaging, clear, and replete with cinematic references These new mental frontiers make for captivating reading Publishers Weekly Kaku turns his attention to the human mind with equally satisfying resultsTelepathy is no longer a fantasy since scanners can already detect, if crudely, what a subject is thinking, and genetics and biochemistry now allow researchers to alter memories and increase intelligence in animals Direct electrical stimulation of distinct brain regions has changed behavior, awakened comatose patients, relieved depression, and produced out of body and religious experiences Kaku is not shy about quoting science fiction movies and TV he has seen them all he delivers ingenious predictions extrapolated from good research already in progress Kirkus ReviewsFacts to ponder there are as many stars in our galaxy about 100 billion as there are neurons in your brain your cell phone has computing power than NASA had when it landed Apollo 11 on the moon These seemingly unrelated facts tell us two things our brains are magnificently complex organisms, and science fiction has a way of becoming reality rather quickly This deeply fascinating book by theoretical physicist Kaku explores what might be in store for our minds practical telepathy and telekinesis artificial memories implanted into our brains and a pill that will make us smarter He describes work being done right now on using sensors to read images in the human brain and on downloading artificial memories into the brain to treat victims of strokes and Alzheimers SF fans might experience a sort of breathless thrill when reading the bookThis stuff is happening Its really happening and for general readers who have never really thought of the brain in all its glorious complexity and potential, the book could be a seriously mind opening experience BooklistPraise for Physics of the Future A wide ranging tour of what to expect from technological progress over the next century or so.fascinatingand related with commendable clarity Wall Street Journal Mind bending..Kaku has a gift for explaining incredibly complex concepts, on subjects as far ranging as nanotechnology and space travel, in language the lay reader can grasp.engrossing San Francisco Chronicle Epic in its scope and heroic in its inspiration Scientific American Kaku has the rare ability to take complicated scientific theories and turn them into readable tales about what our lives will be like in the future..funfascinating And just a little bit spooky USA TodayPraise for Physics of the Impossible An invigorating experience The Christian Science MonitorKaku s latest book aims to explain exactly why some visions of the future may eventually be realized while others are likely to remain beyond the bounds of possibility Science fiction often explores such questions science falls silent at this point Kaku s work helps to fill a void The EconomistMighty few theoretical physicists would bother expounding some of these possible impossibilities, and Kaku is to be congratulated for doing so He gets the juices of future physicists flowing Los Angeles Times Mapping Your Future Mapping Future is a nonprofit organization committed to helping students, families, and schools navigate the higher education student loan processes through trusted career, college, financial aid counseling resources Welcome Options At Options, we take pride in offering organizational effectiveness, efficiency people based competitive advantage our clients Organizations are human systems Home METRO GROUP Archiv Archiv Willkommen im der Durch die Aufteilung des Konzerns haben sich zwei unabhngige und auf ihr jeweiliges Marktsegment spezialisierte Unternehmen gebildet Eriba Caravan capper online Fhre, Cres, Kroatien ferry, Croatia Warum ein Hymer Eriba Why buy Grnde fr den Kauf eines Futures FutureMe Write Letter your Self letter future set goals for yourself, make prediction about world Envision future, then it happen Monitoring Welcome MTF Monitoring an ongoing study of behaviors, attitudes, values American secondary school college young adults Back Part II Wikipedia Back science fiction film directed by Robert Zemeckis written Bob Gale It sequel second installment trilogy future English French Dictionary traduction anglais franais Forums pour discuter de voir ses formes composes, exemples et poser vos questions Gratuit Football s NFL Draft, Mock Comprehensive coverage draft Over next few months Football will bring you player profiles, team updates, hot news, mock drafts, live much mathe mathe online bietet eine Galerie multimedialer Lernhilfen Schule, Studium Selbststudium provides gallery mathematics multimedia learning tools German language Complete Online Counseling , Mirai no Torankusu Saiyan Earthling hybrid son Vegeta Bulma from alternateMichio Kaku Michio m i t o k u born January theoretical physicist, futurist, popularizer Biografia Comunemente noto per la sua intensa attivit di divulgatore, un fisico teorico impegnato nello studio della teoria delle About Official Website Dr Kaku bestselling author, acclaimed public speaker, renowned As co founder Physics Impossible A explores what still do not quite understand, those grey areas that surely most fascinating part physics New Scientist Parallel Worlds A Journey Through Creation, In this thrilling journey into mysteries cosmos, author takes us on dizzying ride explore black holes time Physicist supervolcano all you There trouble brewing underground joke Physicist says beneath Yellowstone National Park due erupt Will Elon Musk or NASA get Mars first science, as well host two radio programs The Humanity Terraforming Mars, MICHIO KAKU professor at City University York, cofounder string field theory, several widely What jobs flourish Interview Pt The physicist theory explains travel possible Kind Physics How Science Will Shape Human Destiny Our Daily Lives Year book The Future of the Mind: The Scientific Quest to Understand, Enhance, and Empower the Mind

  • Format Kindle
  • 400 pages
  • 0307473341
  • Michio Kaku
  • Anglais
  • 21 April 2016