The Salt Fix: Why the Experts Got It All Wrong--and How Eating More Might Save Your Life

The Salt Fix: Why the Experts Got It All Wrong--and How Eating More Might Save Your Life ి ╼ The Salt Fix: Why the Experts Got It All Wrong--and How Eating More Might Save Your Life Online Read ᔋ Kindle Ebook By James DiNicolantonio ៅ 1But Doesnt Salt Cause High Blood Pressure For than forty years, our doctors, the government, and the nations leading health associations have told us that consuming salt increases blood pressure and thus causes chronic high blood pressure.Heres the truth there was never any sound scientific evidence to support this idea Even back in 1977, when the governments Dietary Goals for the United States recommended that Americans restrict their salt intake, a report from the U.S Surgeon General admitted there was no evidence that a low salt diet would prevent the increases in blood pressure that often occur with advancing age.1 The first systematic review and meta analysis of the effects of sodium restriction on blood pressure did not occur until 1991, and it was almost entirely based on weak, nonrandomized scientific data but by then, we had already been telling Americans to cut their salt intake for nearly fifteen years By that point, those white crystals had already been ingrained into the publics mind as a primary cause of high blood pressure a message that remains today.The advice stemmed largely from the most basic of scientific explanations the saltblood pressure hypothesis This hypothesis held that eating higher levels of salt leads to higher levels of blood pressure end of story But that wasnt the full story, of course As with so many old medical theories, the real story was a bit complex.The hypothesis went like this In the body, we measure blood pressure in two different ways The top number of a typical blood pressure reading is your systolic blood pressure, the pressure in your arteries during contraction of your heart The bottom number is your diastolic blood pressure, the pressure in your arteries when your heart is relaxed When we eat salt, so the theory goes, we also get thirsty so we drink water In the salthigh blood pressure hypothesis, that excess salt then causes the body to hold on to that increased water, in order to dilute the saltiness of the blood Then, the resulting increased blood volume would automatically lead to higher blood pressure.Thats the theory, anyway Makes sense, right All of this did make sense, in theory, and for a while there was some circumstantial evidence supporting this claim Data was gathered on salt intake and blood pressures in various populations, and correlations were seen in some cases But even if those correlations were consistent, as we all know, correlation does not equal causation just because one thing salt may sometimes lead to another thing higher blood pressure , which happens to correlate with another thing cardiovascular events , that does not necessarily prove that the first thing caused the third thing.Sure enough, data that conflicted with the saltblood pressure theory continued to be published right along with data that supported it A heated debate raged in the scientific community about whether salt induced chronically elevated blood pressure hypertension versus a fleeting, inconsequential rise in blood pressure, with advocates and skeptics on both sides In fact, compared to any other nutrient, even cholesterol or saturated fat, salt has caused the most controversy And once we got on that salthigh blood pressure train, it was hard to get off Governments and health agencies had taken a stance on salt, and to admit that they were wrong would cause them to lose face They continued the same low salt mantra, refusing to overturn their premature verdict on salt until they were presented with overwhelming evidence to the contrary No one was willing to get off the train until there was definitive evidence that their presumptions were wrong instead of asking, Did we ever have any evidence to recommend sodium restriction in the first place We believed so strongly in sodium restriction because we believed so strongly in blood pressure as a metric of health Low salt advocates posit that even a one point reduction in blood pressure if translated to millions of people would actually equal a reduction in strokes and heart attacks But evidence in the medical literature suggests that approximately 80 percent of people with normal blood pressure less than 120 80 mmHg are not sensitive to the blood pressure raising effects of salt at all Among those with prehypertension a precursor to high blood pressure , roughly 75 percent are not sensitive to salt And even among those with full blown hypertension, about 55 percent are totally immune to salts effects on blood pressure.2Thats right even among those with the highest blood pressure, about half are not at all affected by salt.The stringent low salt guidelines were based on a guess we essentially gambled that the small benefits to blood pressure that we see in some patients would extend to large benefits for the whole population And while taking that gamble, we glossed over the most important point why salt may increase blood pressure in some people but not in others Had we focused on that, we wouldve realized that fixing the underlying issue which has nothing to do with eating too much salt completely fixes ones salt sensitivity We also presumed that blood pressure, a fleeting measurement known to fluctuate depending on many health factors, was always impacted by salt And because of that baseless certainty, we presumed that overconsumption of salt would logically result in dire health outcomes, such as strokes and heart attacks.Our mistake came from taking such a small sample of people unethically small and wildly extrapolating their benefits from low salt eating without ever mentioning the risks Instead, we focused on those extremely minuscule reductions in blood pressure, completely disregarding the numerous other health risks caused by low salt intake including several side effects that actually magnify our risk of heart disease such as increased heart rate compromised kidney function and adrenal insufficiency hypothyroidism higher triglyceride, cholesterol, and insulin levels and, ultimately, insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.Perhaps most illustrative of this willful disregard for risk is the case of heart rate Heart rate is proven to increase on a low salt diet This harmful effect occurs in nearly everyone who restricts his or her salt intake Although this effect is documented thoroughly in the medical literature, no food ad or dietary guideline says, A low salt diet can increase your risk of elevated heart rate And what has a bigger impact on your health a one point reduction in blood pressure or a four beat per minute increase in heart rate In chapter 4, Ill take a closer look at what these metrics mean and Ill let you decide If our bodies allowed us to isolate each of these risks, we might be able to say for certain that one or another is most important But when you combine all of the known dangers of salt restriction, its easy to see that the harms far outweigh any possible benefits In other words, weve focused on just one metric that might change with a low salt diet blood pressure but completely disregarded all the other harmful effects in the process.Now that we can recognize our folly, weve come to a moment in our nations public health when we need to ask ourselves Have we subjected generations of people especially those whose health was already compromised to a treatment that may have escalated their health decline This question becomes increasingly urgent as the stresses of the modern world inflict a compounded toll on our bodies In addition to the salt we lose by following our low carb, ketogenic, or paleo diets, were also taking medications that cause salt loss were enduring damage to the intestine that causes decreased salt absorption including Crohns disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome IBS , and leaky gut and were doing damage to the kidneys by eating refined carbohydrates and sugar decreasing the kidneys ability to retain salt.Recent research even suggests that chronic salt depletion may be a factor in what endocrinologists term internal starvation When you start restricting your salt intake, the body starts to panic One of the bodys defense mechanisms is to increase insulin levels, because insulin helps the kidneys retain sodium Unfortunately, high insulin levels also lock energy into your fat cells, so that you have trouble breaking down stored fat into fatty acids or stored protein into amino acids for energy When your insulin levels are elevated, the only macronutrient that you can efficiently utilize for energy is carbohydrate.3See where this is headed You start craving sugar and refined carbs like crazy, because your body believes carbohydrate is your only viable energy source And, as the now familiar story goes, the refined carbs you eat, the refined carbs you tend to crave This overeating of processed carbs and high sugar foods virtually ensures fat cell accumulation, weight gain, insulin resistance, and eventually type 2 diabetes.Whats clear is that we have been focusing on the wrong white crystal all along We demonized sodium before we had the evidence And our health has been paying the price ever since Had we left salt on the table, our health problems in general and especially those pertaining to sugar might be a little less dramatic.Its time to set the record straight Its time to drop the guilt, grab the shaker, and enjoy salt again Time for the TruthIve always been very athletic, running cross country and wrestling in high school, so I know a great deal about how nutrition or lack thereof impacts performance All those afternoons of running, and then spending my days as a wrestler in the sauna to lose weight, made me appreciate how important salt is for athletes.After high school, I graduated from the University at Buffalo with my Doctor of Pharmacy degree and began to work in the community as a pharmacist I became even interested in salt when I found out that one of my patients was complaining of fatigue, dizziness, and lethargy While puzzling this out with her, I remembered that she was on a medication an antidepressant called sertraline that can increase the risk of low sodium levels in the blood When I put together her doctors instructions to cut her salt intake with the additional prescription of a diuretic, I immediately suspected that she was dehydrated because of salt depletion and that her blood sodium levels were low I suggested that she might need to start eating salt but advised her to get her blood sodium levels tested first to confirm my suspicions.Sure enough, her sodium levels were extremely low Her doctor cut the dose of her diuretic in half and told her to eat salt After that, it wasnt long before all of her symptoms went away The following week, she came into the pharmacy to tell me that I was right and that I helped to dramatically improve the quality of her life just about the best thing any person in a medical field can hear I was extremely relieved and encouraged that the solution to her symptoms was so simple, so inexpensive, and so immediately effective.That experience prompted me to take a deeper look into the low salt guidelines The deeper I looked, the I could see that maybe the advice we had been giving people, to cut their salt intake, wasnt correct after all Around the same time, in 2013, I took a position as a cardiovascular research scientist at Saint Lukes Mid America Heart Institute After joining Saint Lukes, I published nearly two hundred medical papers in the scientific literature, many relating to the impact of salt and sugar on health Based on these academic publications, that same year I was offered a position as the associate editor of BMJ Open Heart, an official journal of the British Cardiovascular Society.In total, Ive spent nearly a decade examining the research on salt and working with clinicians to untangle the complexity of our salt intake and get to the heart of the issue Should we do away with these outdated restrictions Who really needs less salt and who needs How much and what kinds are optimal And perhaps most exciting, how might increasing our salt intake actually help us turn back the tide of obesity and stem the rising epidemic of type 2 diabetes that threatens to overwhelm our nation, and the entire world We can start by telling the truth Low salt is miserable.Low salt is dangerous.Our bodies evolved to need salt.Low salt guidelines are based on inherited wisdom, not scientific fact.All the while, the real culprit has been sugar.And finally salt may be one solution to rather than a cause of our nations chronic disease crises.Your body drives you to eat several grams of salt around 810 grams, equal to 3,0004,000 milligrams of sodium every day to remain in homeostasis, an optimal state in which you put the least amount of stress on the body But you could literally live the rest of your life and probably a much longer one if you never ingested another gram of added sugar.Now, I understand that it will take a bit of time to unlearn years of indoctrination about the evils of salt which is why I wrote this book In these chapters, youll learn the entire story By the end, in chapters 7 and 8, you will find specific recommendations for how you can find and implement your ideal salt intake But that understanding begins with reeducation about the myriad ways our lives can be healthier, stronger, and longer when we welcome salt back into our lives.If salt has always played such a fundamental role in human health, how did we ever begin to doubt it Perhaps salts ubiquity was one of the factors in its downfall perhaps we simply took it for granted In order to understand how we could have gone so far off course, we first have to understand the critical role salt has always played in human health, from the moment life slithered out of the sea right up until the birth of modern medicine By looking closely at salts crucial role in our past, we can start to restore its tarnished reputation and honor salts place in our future.2We Are Salty FolkWe are essentially salty people.We cry salt, we sweat salt, and the cells in our bodies are bathed in salty fluids Without salt we would not be able to live.Just a small dash of salt can take a bland dish and heighten all of its flavors, making it taste extraordinary Salt knocks out bitterness and makes food taste sweeter, reducing the need for sugar And just as much as we relish the satisfaction and savory heartiness that salt adds to our food, salt plays a fundamental role in dozens of critical functions in our bodies.Chapter 1 But Doesnt Salt Cause High Blood Pressure 1 Bayer, R., D M Johns, and S Galea 2012 Salt and public health contested science and the challenge of evidence based decision making Health Aff Millwood 31 12 27382746.2 Overlack, A., et al 1993 Divergent hemodynamic and hormonal responses to varying salt intake in normotensive subjects Hypertension 22 3 331338.3 Taubes, G 2007 Good Calories, Bad Calories New York Knopf.The truth about what salt is really doing to your body The TelegraphJames DiNicolantonio shakes up a nutritional hornets nest with his new book A smart and interesting account of the ferocious scientific debate Michael Bader, author of More than Bread and Butter, for Alternet.orgDiNicolantonios premise completely overturns the conventional wisdom about salt consumption Take Care Broadcast, Thought provoking, evidenced based information for anyone interested in improving their health Library JournalWhy we should embrace the salt shaker, not shun it Canadian National Post Dr DiNicolantonio takes us away from hype and hyperbole to a place of rationality as it relates to salt This extensively researched text lets us finally erase the guilt all of us felt when catering to our desire for this important mineral David Perlmutter, MD, 1 New York Times bestselling author of Grain Brain and The Grain Brain Whole Life PlanIn his new book The Salt Fix,Dr James DiNicolantonioshatters the age old myth that salt is a cause of heart disease He also makes excellent recommendations for a heart healthy diet that your tastebuds will really enjoy If you want to learn how to make food taste great again, discover tips to improve your heart health, and be enlightened about the truth about salt, youve got to check out this book Dr Josh Axe, author of Eat Dirt, founder ofDrAxe.comFor decades, doctors and mainstream medicine have recommended that you lower your salt intake, but in this well researched and surprising book, Dr DiNicolantonio explains why this seemingly well informed advice is, in fact, wrong The Salt Fix provides the advice and the program you need to add back the salt and in the process improve your health and your waistline Robb Wolf, New York Times bestselling author of The Paleo Solution and Wired to EatThe medical profession has done a disservice to millions of people by misleading them into thinking they need to avoid salt in their diets Our blood is salty our tissue fluids are salty we need salt to thrive In The Salt Fix, Dr DiNicolantonio charts the ill begotten thinking that got us to this sorry state of almost universal salt avoidance, and imparts invaluable scientifically sound advice for adding this healthful substance back into your diet Dr DiNicolantonios book will help you improve your health by actually adding salt back into your favorite foods.Michael R Eades, M.D., New York Times bestselling author of Protein PowerThis superb book busts many misconceptions around salt consumption It s a must read.Dr Aseem Malhotra, Consultant Cardiologist and advisor to UK s National Obesity Forum The Salt Fix Why the Experts Got it All Wrong and How I just finished book, The by James DiNicolantonio Well worth read As a prevention wellness family physician who prides himself in Sodium Deficiency Destroys Our Health information on harms of sodium deficiency this article is only drop ocean compared to scope book Dr If you are looking for topic, then would be great tool Buchkritik von So, if that s New England Journal Medicine chooses editorialize about salt, can see extent industry influence editor chief American Hypertension worked many years as consultant Institute Irgendwie habe ich da nach dem Lesen des Buches ein flaues Gefhl im Magen with DiNicolantonio Too little salt diet shift body into semi starvation mode cause insulin resistance, may even absorb twice much fat every gram consume certain populations will show how we wrongly demonized essential micronutrient well explain what current science really says misunderstood mineral maximize its effect so enjoy ideal health longevity It Wrong has ratings reviews Kari said ve decided emulate author repeat important re wording slightly O an eBay tells remarkable story 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  • Format Kindle
  • 274 pages
  • James DiNicolantonio
  • Anglais
  • 17 December 2017